Содержание статьи при реферировании излагается объективно, без критической оценки содержания с позиции реферирующего.
Придельным объемом а принято считать 1200 слов. При сокращении текста оригинала от 3 до 10 раз.
В процессе реферирования происходит существенная переработка содержания, композиции языка оригинала: выделяются главные факты и излагаются в кратной форме.
Язык и стиль оригинала претерпевают изменения в сторону нормативности, нейтральности, простоты и лаконичности. - это не простой набор ключевых фрагментов текста, на базе которого он строится, а новый самостоятельный текст.
(Текст должен быть связным - когерентность текста. Необходимо знать стереотипные выражения/фразы, связующие текст -. линки: and also, but, besides, ect.)
LINK WORDS (см. коммуникативные справочники)
as a result
Объем а: вступление 2-4 предложения,
основное содержание 12-15 предложений,
в заключении 2-4 предложения + заключительное предложение.
Bibliographic reference (библиографическая ссылка)
I'm going to attract (to draw) you attention / to present the article headlined / under the headline 'New oil alliance' which was published in 'Izvestia daily'/ 'Dengi weekly' / '... monthly' dated the 16th of January two thousand and nine (Brit.) / dated January 16th (без артикля) two thousand nine (нет - and) (Am.). The article was written by Irina Dorohova (если есть информация, кто он/она такой, нужно указать) stuff reporter (штатный корреспондент) или real estate analyst -аналитик рынка недвижимости.
'Izvestia daily' dated Junuary 16th two thousand nine carries an article headlined 'New oil alliance'. The article was written by ...
1. Прочитать полностью газетную статью
2. Составить summary - умозаключение, мнение, о чем статья (3-5
When you summarize the article you look at a whole text
and reduce it to a few sentences using your own phrases, not the reporter's.
The first sentence of the summary should express the overall message of the text (общую идею). The remaining sentences should present the most important ideas in the text.
A good summary need not
include details or supporting evidences (подкрепляющие факты) for the main ideas.
1) The primary task of the published article is ...
2) The main aim of the article is ...
3) The article under review aims at ... (striking up a debate on environmental
protection in Africa).
4) In the modern world the problem of/ the issue of
'....' gains special significance
/ great importance.
1) The article deals with
dwells on / upon
runs / reads / says that
2) The reporter focuses his attention on ...
points out (указывает)
stresses / emphasizes (подчеркивает)
reveals / discloses (статья раскрывает)
reviews (дает обзор)
summarizes (подводит итог, суммирует).
III. Essential context
(the body of the article - основное содержание)
Осуществляется компрессия текста
(подходит для уровня upper intermediate и выше)
1. Читаем статью.
2. Выделяем ключевые слова, предложения (т.е. те, которые содержат
основную мысль). В тексте необходимо выделить 3-4 основные мысли,
Каждый абзац содержит ключевую мысль. Таким образом, нужно сказать 2 -4 предложения по каждому абзацу.
The article starts with ...
The article under consideration points out...
Great attention in the article is paid to ...
Much effort is undertaken to analyse ...
A special concern of the reporter is ...
The article goes on to say ...
The paper argues (говорит) / maintains / claims ...
The reporter finds a good deal to say in support of/ against...
The paper finds it significant that...
The reporter is confident that...
The article agrees / strong believes / expresses approval of (выражает одобрение)
/ insists on .. ing / bitterly affects (выступает с яростными нападками на ...) /
condemns (клеймит, осуждает) ...
The paper is sharply critical of...
The article (the reporter) expresses concern (выражает обеспокоенность) / alarm
(тревогу) at not accepting ...
The paper puts / places the responsibility for smth on smb.
Подвести итог с точки зрения автора на данную проблему. Указать, к чему
автор подводит нас в статье, т.е. сделать собственное умозаключение на
точку зрения автора
. Здесь играет роль тонкость восприятия. «Не мы читаем
текст, а текст читает нас».
In conclusion the article reads ...
In conclusion the reporter makes inference that as a result...
The reporter tries to persuade the reader that...
(по выбору, лучше не делать - программой не предусмотрено)
My attitude / my opinion ...
If you asked me I' d say that... . ■ jj
To my mind ...
In my opinion ...
As for me ...
В ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИИ НУЖНО СКАЗАТЬ:
That's about all I wanted to say,
That's it (
) as far as this article is concerned.
The text under analysis is an extract from the novel "The passionate year" by an English writer James Hilton. It is a good example of Belles-Letters style, or piece (the substyle) of emotive prose. It is a piece of an author's narrative given in the 3-d person singular.
Optional - необязательно (информация об авторе)
James Hilton was born in England and educated at Cambridge. His main literary works are: "Lost Horizon", "Goodbye, Mr Chips", "Random Harvest". He lived in the USA since 1935 and died in Long Beach, California, in 1954.
Summary (рассказать, о чем текст; 3-5 предложения без косвенной речи)
The given text is a good report of the pedagogical activities of the rookie (неопытный) teacher who was assigned to work in a British Boarding school. A custom existed to rag on a new teacher. The first time he starts. But the teacher turned out to be smarter and he put them off.
he main body is comprised of the analysis.
The language of the extract is rather intensive and pretty complicated. The author uses the language which makes his ideas easy to understand.
In the 1st paragraph we run across a Boarding School which essentially a British notion and means a place where students live on campus.
For example students were struggling to their places which means they were moving in disorder).
The atmosphere of the extract is extremely tense. This effect is archived by using such words as "quiet, orderly", ect. They are employed to stress the feeling that quietness is only on the surface but nervousness is inside.
Describing the teacher's feelings (state) J.Hilton employs a lot of bookish words
which are in contrast with the situation which gives a shade of irony to it. There are some cases о interior and indirect speech. (He wonder if the fool of him supposing...)
These devices allow the reader to peep into (проникать) the inner world of the main character, his thoughts and fears.
In the epilogue Speed talks to Clamber, a college of his. There are also a lot of official words in Clambers speech (..., official notes). The author employs these words to stress the fact that Clamber is both envious and a bit frustrated.
The situation in the text reveals the problem of relationship between a teacher and pupils, the importance of being passionate and tolerant.
The author in general successfully conveys the characteristic feathers of the main character. He employs the stylistic devices that are aimed at describing the emotions, experienced by young teacher who deals with the young audience. James Hilton uses some metaphors (He was eager for the stop to break...). This metaphor is used to stress Speed's nervousness (... execution wake up Clamber). This metaphor is used to emphasize Clamber's attitude and might bring the effect of irony.
There are a lot of similes in the text. They are also used to reflect Speed's feelings.
A stream of epithets (a number of epithets) 'passionate year', 'trifling', 'bright' is used to make the text to life. A detached construction 'in hot indignation' stresses the boy's feelings. A hyperbole 'to go off into hysterics of laughter' reveals the atmosphere in the class. "You have a hundred lines' is a typical case of metonymy.
J. Hilton employs such a stylistic device as allusion to military, theater, legal terms.
Military: powder-magazine (порох.бочка), weapon, armoury (арсенал, склад оружия),
Theater: first night, star benefit performance, subdued expectancy; Legal: assembly, penalty, plead for.
It gives us a notion that a teacher's profession is like a battle and performance, court at the same time.
To sum it up we arrive at a conclusion that S.Hilton skillfully depicts the incident in the class-room in particular and teacher's work in general. The main idea is that a teacher must be calm, tolerant and considerate.
The text is impressive with its humorous and realistic description of the atmosphere and of the teacher's feelings.
In the author's opinion life is tough for teachers in Great Britain and all teachers deserve high praise and estimation.
The passage under analysis is a peace of emotive prose which is mostly the author's narrative containing 2 short dialogs rendered in direct speech.
Information about the author (optional) - необязательно
This text is an extract from Fitzgerald's short story 'The Ice Palace'. Frances Scott Fitzgerald is one of the most famous American novelists of the 1st part of the 20th century was born in 1896 and died in 1940.
His literary work include: 'This side of paradise' (1920) - «По эту сторону рая», 'The Grate Gatsby' (1925) «Великий Гэтсби» which is considered to be his finest novels, 'Tender is the night' (1944) «Ночь нежна», 'The last Tycoon' «Последний магнат». It remains unfinished. He also wrote the number of short stories. The most famous one is 'Tales of the Jazz Age'. He was famous for his tremendous realism and considered to be one of the greatest masters of emotive prose among his contemporaries.
Summary (компрессия текста: 5-7 предложений)
The text under analysis contains a description of a friendly chat between a girl, Sally Carrol, and a guy named Clark, Georgia Tech graduated, who seems to be her boyfriend. Clark picks her up in a car and intends to take her out swimming. He looks and behaves like a good natured easy going guy with a steady income and no big problems. He is also a success with girls, Sally Carrol being one of them.
Analysis of the text
Linguistic analysis of the text
Speaking of the language used by the author what amazed me most is Fitzgerald's peculiar use of verbs which he mostly puts in the figurative meanings in a memo so you nick that it makes his writing definitely different from any other 2(fh century writer.
E.g.: 'dozing round the lazy streets'
instead of 'lazily hanging around the streets'.
It sometimes takes your time to guess why he picks up this very verb out of a language line of synonyms. Thus he says:
E.g.: 'Sally Carrol gazed down'
instead of 'looked down',
'to regard the car'
instead of 'look at the car', 'watch the car',
'the whistle split
the dusty air' instead of 'sounded',
'Clark twisted his tall body round' instead of 'turned out',
'he bent a distorted glance' instead of 'cast a glance',
'destroying parts of green apple' instead of'eating',
'she kicked over' instead of 'turned over'.
One can hardly think of anything linguistically better than saying that 'girls enjoyed being swum with and danced with and made love to' to mean that those girls just liked it when boys swam with them, danced with them and made love to them.
Stylistic analysis of the text
Fitzgerald being a great master of description employs a great number of stylistic devices.
1. Fitzgerald's artistic sense prompts him the use of a number of metaphors
that make his writing more expressive and convey his special feelings to the reader. Among those metaphors that can be found in the given passage I would name such as expressions:
'the whistle split the dusty air' in the meaning that the car (horn) sounded (the car horned),
'she raised herself with profound inertia' to mean that she rose reluctantly,
'she had been occupied in alternately destroying parts of a green apple and painting paper dolls for her younger sister' which are regarded as a sustained metaphor.
To make his characteristics more expressive as well as to attach to them decisional shades of meaning Fitzgerald uses numerous epithets that make his subjective evaluations more imaginative.
I would name the following epithets:
'brilliant and perfunctorily way of seating' meaning the same as 'graceful and casual',
'voluminous sigh' instead of deep sigh',
'noisy niggery street fairs' meaning street fairs with noisy afro-americans,
'soft-voiced girls' which I regard as a compound epithet meaning girls speaking in pleasant voices.
The detached construction
'just enough to keep himself in ease and his car in gasoline' also called my attention. Due to the peculiar use of the preposition 'in' referring to both the state f his mind and the state of his car which constitutes a rather original play of words called zeugma.