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I

I

- ,

.

N O U N

I

2007

- - - , . .

:

. ., . . , 2 () . ,

. ., ..., . - - , .

.., . . , -

Noun: I / . .. , ... , 2007. - 23 .

1 .

- , .

3 , , - .

,

I. T H E N U M B E R

Most of the English nouns have two numbers: the singular and the plural.

: .

T H E P L U A R A L

1. Spelling rules.

.

Read the following words and remember how the plural is formed.

,

.

a.

a girl - girls

a friend - friends

a flower - flowers

b.

a bus - buses

a bush - bushes

a box - boxes

a match - matches

c.

a lad y - ladies

a pon y - ponies

a lily - lilies

but:

a da y - days

a ke y - keys

a pla y - plays

d.

tomat o - tomatoes

potat o - potatoes

her o - heroes

but:

radi o radios

Zo o Zoos

tatto o tattoos

but:

photo - photos

piano - pianos

zero - zeros

e.

life - lives

thief - thieves

wife - wives

but:

chief - chiefs

belief - beliefs

roof - roofs

safe - safes

2. Remember the nouns!

!

a man

a woman

a child

a foot

a tooth

a goose

a mouse

an ox

men

women

children

feet

teeth

geese

mice

oxen

3. Identical forms for the plural and for the singular.

.

a sheep

a deer

a swine

a fish

a trout

a salmon

a species

a series

a craft

a means

a dozen

a hundred

a thousand

a million

per cent

sheep

deer

swine

fish

trout

salmon

species

series

craft

means

dozen

hundred

thousand

million

per cent

But:

hundreds of people

thousands of quesions

millions of stars

4. Latin and Greek suffixes.

.

-a

-ae

formula

formulae

-um

-a

datum

memorandum

data

memoranda

-ix/-ex

-ex/ices

appendix

index

appendices /appendixes

indices /indexes

-is

-es

crisis

basis

analysis

thesis

hypothesis

crises

bases

analyses

theses

hypotheses

-on

-a

phenomenon

criterion

phenomena

criteria

-us

-i

stimulus

nucleus

stimuli

nuclei

5. The plural of compound nouns.

.

a.

In compounds we put the head noun in the plural.

.

a lady-bird - lady-birds

a story-teller - story-tellers

a house-wife - house-wives

a postman - postmen

a Frenchwoman - Frenchwomen

editor- in-chief - editors-in-chief

brother-in-law - brothers-in-law

looker-on - lookers-on

b.

But: if there is no noun-stem, we add -s to the end of the word.

: , -s .

merry-go-round - merry-go-rounds

forget-me-not - forget-me-nots

c.

If a compound contains such words as man, woman or lord at the beginning we must put both stems into plural.

man, woman lord, .

a man-servant - men-servants

a woman-doctor - women-doctors

a lord-justice - lords-justices

6. Nouns which are used only in the plural.

, .

trousers

jeans

spectacles

glasses

scissors

scales

tongs

as in Russian

politics

contents

arms

customs

belongings

in Russian only singular

. .

wages

clothes

savings

riches

goods

stairs

the Browns

the United States

potatoes

onions

carrrots

oats

in Russian both singular and plural

.., ..

But:

one pototo -

one onion -

one carrot -

7. Nouns which are used only in the plural and their homonyms.

, , (, , ).

customs -

glasses -

studies -

pictures -

authorities - ,

manners - ,

damages -

a custom(s) -

a glass(es) -

a study(ies) -

a picture(s) -

authority(ies) - ,

a manner(s) -

a damage(s) -

8. Nouns which are only in the singular in English and in Russian.

, , .

mathematics

physics

phonetics

9. Nouns used in the singular in English but are the plural in Russian.

, , - .

applause

chess

draughts

money

ink

cream

hair

sledge

intelligence

knowledge

information

9. Nouns used in the singular in English but can be both in the singular and in the plural in Russian.

, , - , .

advice

evidence

fruit

research

news

progress

,

10. Nouns used in the singular and in the plural in English but only in the plural in Russian.

, , , - .

gate(s)

clock(s)

watch(es)

()

11. Nouns which are singular in form but plural in meaning.

, , - .

police

militia

people

clergy -

Eg.:

The police are controlling the order at the meeting.

12. The nouns the singular form of which can be used as the singular and the plural.

, , .

family

team

gang

crew

group

committee

company

Eg.:

The family is large.

(The family is taken as a single unit. . )

The family are sitting at table.

(The members are taken separately . . )

13. The nouns with two plural forms.

, .

a penny -

pence - (Eg.: two pence)

pennies - (Eg.: Several pennies fell on the floor.)

T E S T S

ON NUMBER

1. Choose the correct plural form of the following nouns.

.

a

b

c

1

money

moneys

-

monies

2

a mouse

mouses

mice

mise

3

a watch

watches

watch

watchs

4

an address

-

addresses

address

5

a tomato

tomatoes

tomatos

tomates

6

a radio

radios

radioes

-

7

a story

storys

storeys

stories

8

a fly

flys

flyes

flies

9

a bus

busses

buses

bussess

10

a dish

dishes

dishs

dish

11

a belief

believes

beliefs

belief

12

a man-servant

man-servants

men-servant

men-servants

13

a penny

pennies

pennys

pence

14

a sledge

sledge

sledges

-

15

a sheep

-

sheep

sheeps

16

a mouth

mouths

mice

mouthes

17

a deer

deer

deers

-

18

a foot

foots

footes

feet

19

advice

advice

advices

-

20

a trout

trouts

-

trout

21

hair

hairs

hair

-

22

a commander-in-chief

commanders-in-chief

commander-in-chiefs

commanders-in-chiefs

23

vacation

vacations

-

vacation

24

a fisherman

fisherman

fishersman

fishermen

25

a boy-messenger

boys-messenger

boy-messengers

boys-messengers

26

a crisis

crisis

-

crises

27

a merry-go-round

merries-go-round

merries-go-rounds

merry-go-rounds

28

evidence

evidence

evidences

-

29

a month

monthes

months

month

30

a passer-by

passer-bys

passers-byes

passers-by

31

a looker-on

lookers-on

looker-ons

lookers-ons

32

a woman-doctor

women-doctor

woman-doctors

women-doctors

33

an index

indexs

indeces

indices

34

a dozen

dozen

dozens

-

35

a stimulus

stimuluses

stimulus

stimuli

36

fireman

firemen

firemans

firesmen

37

a lord-justice

lords-justices

lord-justices

lords-justice

38

scissors

scissorses

scissors

-

39

fish

fish

fishes

-

40

a ship

ships

ship

-

41

tongs

tongs

tonges

-

42

a valley

valleys

vallies

valleis

43

knowledge

knowledges

knowledge

-

44

toothbrush

teethbrush

toothbrushes

teethbrushes

45

jeans

jeans

-

jeanses

46

an umbrella

umbrellas

umbrellaes

umbrellae

47

a formula

formulas

formulaes

formulae

48

a clock

clocks

clock

-

49

a million

millions

million

-

50

news

news

-

newses

2. Choose the appropriate form of the word.

.

1. What ___ the news?

a) is; b) are

2. The contents ___ been changed.

a) has not; b) have not; c) doesnt have

3. Wed like three ____ pencils.

a) dozen; b) dozens; c) dozen of

4. His hair ___ dark.

a) is; b) are

5. Money ___ not everything.

a) are; b) is

6. These shoes cost three ___ dollars.

a) hundreds; b) hundred

7. Mathematics ___ an exact science.

a) is; b) are

8. In summer we eat much ___.

a) fruit; b) fruits

9. The witness gave enough ____ at the trial.

a) evidence; b) evidences

10. We caught a few___

a) fishes; b) fish

11. Schoolchildren have four ____ every year.

a) vacation: b) vacations

12. Our team ___ the best.

a) is; b) are

13. Our team ___ playing well.

a) is; b) are

14. There are ___ people in the street.

a) hundred; b) hundreds; c) hundreds of

15. The United States ____ a long history.

a) have; b) has

16. Where ____ my glasses?

a) are; b) is

17. ____ very useful for your health.

a) Carrots are; b) Carrot is

18. _____ very cheap.

a) Potatoes are; b) Potato is

19. His _____ high.

a) wages are; b) wage is

20. The gate ___ open.

a) is; b) are

21. He gave me some useful ___.

a) advice; b) advices.

22. There ____ a lot of chalk on the table.

a) is; b) are

23. The ___ of this country ____ happy.

a) people ... is; b) people ... are; c) peoples ... are

24. The storm brought a lot of ____.

a) damages; b) damage

25. The trousers ___ new.

a) is; b) are

26. I feel that the jury ___ thought that you are innocent.

a) have; b) has

27. The government _____able to pursue the policy which had been promised before the elections.

a) was not; b) were not

28. The police ___ investigating the case now.

a) is; b) are

29. The crew of the plane ____ of four people.

a) consist; b) consists

30. The government usually ____ of the prime minister and several ministers.

a) consist; b) consists

31. The average American family ___ three children.

a) has; b) have

32. The family ____ gone to bed.

a) has; b) have

33. Her clothes ___ fashionable.

a) is; b) are

34. That species of spiders ___ commonly seen in North America.

a) is; b) are

35. I think her hair ____ dyed.

a) is; b) are

36. The phenomena ___ unusual.

a) is; b) are

37. The traffic ___ very heavy in this street.

a) is; b) are

38. When the traffic-lights ___ red, dont cross the street.

a) is; b) are

39. The grapes ___ ripe.

a) is; b) are

40. Athletics ___ an important part of the Olympic games.

a) is; b) are

II. T H E C A S E

English nouns denoting human beings have two cases: the common case and the Genitive case.

: .

T H E G E N E T I V E

1. Read the following examples and remember how the Genitive is formed.

, .

a.

a boys tie

Marys book

hotel-keepers armchair

house-wifes coat

b.

an actresss career

a waitress job

c.

childrens toys

mens hats

sheeps wool

d.

girls dresses

students parties

but:

mothers-in-laws words

editors-in-chiefs studies

e.

Charless jeans

Doriss car

St. Jamess Park

but:

the Browns house

f.

John and Jacks room

2. To show the possession with things we can use of.

, of.

the leg of the table

the top of the box

3. Fixed phrases.

.

the earths surface -

journeys end -

for Heavens sake / for Gods sake -

at ones wits end -

at a stones throw -

a hairs breadth -

4. Time phrases.

, .

an hours journey two hours journey

a days work two days work

a months salary two months salary

5. With nouns expressing space and weight , with the names of countries, cities, ships and with the nouns world, country, city, ship.

, , , , , world, country, city, ship.

the rivers mouth

Moscows museums

worlds theatres

our countrys industry

the ships crew

6. With organizations.

.

the government decision

the companys success

T E S T S

ON CASE

1. Choose the correct word-combination.

.

a

b

c

1

your parents house

your parentss house

your parents house

2

a kitchen table

a kitchens table

a table of a kitchen

3

Lizs bag

the bag of Liz

Liz bag

4

the Bonds car

the Bondss car

the car of the Bonds

5

a birds nest

a nest of a bird

a birds nest

6

transport of Kirov

Kirov transport

Kirovs transport

7

Charles address

Charless address

address of Charles

8

a dining-rooms table

a table of a dining-room

a dining-room table

9

Museum of Pushkin

Pushkins Museum

The Pushkin Museum

10

a journey of a year

a years journey

a year journey

11

resources of the earth

the earths resources

the earth resources

12

Bob and Anns car

Bobs and Anns car

the car of Bob and Ann

13

the rays of the sun

the sun rays

the suns rays

14

Dickens novels

Dickenss novels

the novels of Dickens

15

the portarait of the King

Kings portrait

the King portrait

16

the house of my sister-in-law

my sister-in-laws house

my sisters-in-law house

17

todays newspapers

todays newspapers

newspapers of today

18

the towns walls

the town walls

the walls of the town

18

tennis shoes

tenniss shoes

shoes of tennis

20

our brothers-in-laws car

our brothers-in-law cars

the car of our brothers-in-law

21

the books cover

the book cover

the cover of the book

22

a streets lamp

a street lamp

a lamp of the street

23

the men hats

the mens hats

the hats of the men

24

the ship crew

the crew of the ship

the ships crew

25

childrens toys

children toys

childrens toys

2. Choose the correct variant.

.

1. The only thing she wanted was to see ____.

a) her parents house; b) her parentss house; c) the house of her parents

2. No one could explain _____ at ______.

a) the girl behaviour; b) the girls behaviour; c) the behaviour of the girl

a) yesterdays supper; b) yesterday supper; c) yesterday supper

3. ____ was disappointing. Our team lost.

a) Last Sundays match; b) Last Sunday match; c) Last Sundays match

4. The boy was looking through the ____.

a) childrens books; b) children books; c) books of children

5. After ____ we resumed our work.

a) an hours break; b) an hour break; c) an hour break

6. At that time he lives in _____.

a) his father-in-laws flat; b) his fathers-in-law flat; c) his father-in-law flat

7. I dont like ____.

a) cows milk; b) cows milk; c) the milk of the cows

8. He was puzzled by ____.

a) Ann and Peters visit; b) Anns and Peters visit

9. When Friday came he was ____.

a) at his wits ends; b) at his wit ends; c) at his wit end

10. This is _____.

a) Johns coat; b) the coat of John; c) John coat

T E S TS

ON NUMBER AND CASE

I.

1. His advice ___ always reasonable. I advise you to follow ____.

a) are, them c) is, it

b) are, it d) is, them

2. The applause _____ deafening. I cant stand ___ any longer. Lets go out.

a) are, them c) is, them

b) is, it d) are, it

3. The second witnesss evidence _____ more convincing. ____ made me believe that the suspect is innocent.

a) are, it c) are, they

b) is, it d) is, they

4. Look, her clothes ___ brand new. Where did she get the money to buy ____?

a) is, it c) are, them

b) are, it d) is, them

5. The Browns who lived in _____ house ____ having dinner with the Harrisons who ____ their best friends.

a) a three-storey, were, were

b) three storeys, were, were

c) a three storeys, were, were

d) three storeys, was, were

6. The information he gave us ____ convincing. I dont think we should check ____.

a) is, it c) are, them

b) is, them d) are, it

7. Her pyjamas ___ made of silk. I like _____ very much.

a) is, it c) are, it

b) is, them d) are, them

8. These scissors _____ dull! I cant cut anything with ____.

a) are, them c) is it

b) is, them d) are, it

9. When I move to London, Ill have to find lodgings. Im afraid ____ will be very expensive and Ill have to pay for ____ half of my salary.

a) it, it c) they, it

b) they, them d) it, them

10. I think billiards _____ a dull game. I wonder why the youth nowadays ___ so fond of ____?

a) are, is, it c) are, are, them

b) is, are, it d) is, are, them

11. He is so depressed. The contents of the letter _____ made public. General public _____ discussing _____.

a) have been, is, them c) have been, are, them

b) has been, are, it d) has been, it, is

12. Look! Goods _____ displayed in the window. The manager says that there will be ____ sale.

a) are, two days c) are, a two-days

b) is, two-days d) is, a two-day

13. Our family _____ good at playing draughts. Draughts ____ our favourite game. We play ____ every weekend.

a) is, is, it c) are, are, them

b) are, is, it d) is, are, it

14. Stop! The traffic ____ heavy and the traffic lights ____ red. In ___ time you will cross the street.

a) is, is, two-minutes c) are, are, a two-minutes

b) are, are, a two-minute d) is, are, two-minutes

15. He spent ____ holiday at the ____.

a) a week, Richardsons c) a weeks, Richardsons

b) weeks, Richardson d) week, Richardsons

16. She was going for ___ walk across the field to the ___ house. She was sure that he would help her because it was the duty of ___ to help poor people like her.

a) a ten-miles, governors-general, governor-generals

b) a ten-miles, governor-generals, governors-general

c) a ten-mile, governor-generals, governor-generals

d) ten-miles, governor-generals, governors-general.

17. She wished she had a little garden with ___ and ____, like that of ___.

a) lilies-of-the-valleys, forgets-me-nots, Mrs. Sand

b) lily-of the-valleys, forget-me-nots, Mrs. Sands

c) lilies-of-the-valley, forget-me-nots, Mrs. Sands

d) lilies-of-the-valleys, forgets-me-not, Mrs. Sand

18. Take your _____ and get out with ____! You got my ____ notice, didnt you?

a) belonging, it, two weeks

b) belongings, it, a two weeks

c) belongings, them, two weeks

d) belonging, them, two weeks

19. We want to equip our factory with___ and to install ___ in the assembly shop.

a) new machineries, them

b) a new machinery, it

c) new machineries, it

d) new machinery, it

20. Have you got all the ___ of Byron in your home library? - Yes, I have, but I havent read all of ___.

a) works, them c) works, it

b) work, it d) work, them

II.

1. When he was going through a narrow passage between two ___ , he heard ___. These were his neighbours, two ___ girls.

a) merrys-go-round, laugh, twenty-years old

b) merry-go-rounds, a laugh, twenty-year old

c) merry-goes-round, laughter, twenty-years old

d) merry-goes-round, a laughter, twenty-year-old

2. He pulled off his gloves and put ___ on the dressing-table. She noticed that ____ new. So was his hat.

a) it, it was

b) it, they were

c) them, it was,

d) them, they were

3. He conducted a lot of ___ , but ___ a failure.

a) researches, they were

b) research, it was

c) researches, it was

d) research, they were

4. The money ___ been spent on the construction of the Childrens Care Centre. Road works ___ being held there to build a new ___ crossing.

a) has, are, pedestrians

b) has, are, pedestrian

c) has, is, pedestrians

d) has, is, pedestrians

5. The criteria ___ too vague. If there were a sharper ___ to make our choice, I would be happy.

a) is, criterion c) is, criteria

b) are, criterion d) are, criteria

6. Here ___ the pocket money my uncle has sent me today. ___ will be enough to settle all my debts.

a) are, it c) is, it

b) is, they d) are, they

7. The latest news from the Middle East countries ____ disturbing. A close-up camera showed a man running somewhere. His face was bruised and his clothes ___ torn.

a) was, was c) was, were

b) were, were d) were, was

8. The premises ___ big enough but the inspection took them a lot of ___, and they had to drive home at ___.

a) was, time, dusks

b) were, times, a dusk

c) was, times, dusk

d) were, time, dusk

9. The price for ____ has increased by ten ___ in the last quarter. Lodgings ___ very expensive nowadays.

a) an accomodation, per cent, is

b) accomodation, per cent, are

c) accommodations, per cents, is

d) accomodation, per cents, are

10. This ___ the most effective means of production and ___ can be adjusted to your business in ___ time.

a) is, it, two months

b) are, they, a two-months

c) is, they, two-month

d) is, it, two months

11. Reliable ___ about everyday clothing from the past ___ hard to obtain.

a) evidences, are c) evidences, is

b) evidence, is d) evidence, are

12. ___ depths are usually much greater than ____ depths because of ___ low density.

a) snow, rain, snow

b) snows, rains, snows

c) snow, rain, snows

d) snows, rains, snow

13. The ___ was shaky and he decided to go to the second-hand ___ store.

a) legs table, furnitures

b) leg of the table, furniture

c) table leg, furnitures

d) legs table, furniture

14. One hundred pounds ___ a large sum for her and she decided to put her money on her ___ account.

a) was, savings c) were, savings

b) was, savings d) were, savings

15. This is ___ cloakroom, and that one is for ___.

a) ladies, gentlemens

b) ladys, gentlemens

c) ladies, gentlemen

d) lady, gentlemen

16. The ___ history goes back to 1808.

a) states newspapers

b) states newspaper

b) state newspapers

c) state newspapers

17. At its height in the early 1900s, the British Empire included over 20 ___ of the ___ land area and more than 400 ___ people.

a) percents, world, million

b) percent, worlds, millions

c) percent, worlds, million

c) percents, worlds, million

18. The official ___ is a table containing the holy days, ___, and festivals of the church.

a) Christian Church calendar, saints days

b) Christians Church calendar, saints days

c) Christian Churchs calendar, saints days

d) Christians Churchs calendar, saints days

19. The ____ at the ___ talks made a deep influence on everybody.

a) Minister of Foreign Trades speech, peaces

b) Ministers of Foreign Trade speech, peace

c) Minister of Foreign Trades speech, peaceful

d) Minister of Foreign Trades speech, peace

20. The producer presented his new ___ film. The show took ___ time.

a) two-series, three hours

b) two-seria, three hours

c) two-series, three hours

d) two-series, three hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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