ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Нижегородский государственный университет им. Н.И. Лобачевского
Рекомендовано методической комиссией факультета международных отношений для студентов ННГУ, обучающихся по специальностям
030201 «Политология», 032401 «Реклама»
Т33 Теория рекламы
: (часть I) Практикум. – Нижний Новгород: Нижегородский госуниверситет, 2008 – 37 с.
Составители: Ю.С. Бузуева, Н.А. Глазунова
Рецензент: д.полит.н., профессор, М.И. Рыхтик
Практикум предназначен для работы по развитию навыков чтения профессионально-ориентированных текстов, совершенствованию коммуникативных навыков устной и письменной речи в рамках тем «Природа рекламы», «Содержание рекламы», «Технология создания рекламы», «Структура рекламного сообщения», «Повышение эффективности рекламы».
УДК 42.8 (07)
Нижегородский государственный университет
им. Н.И. Лобачевского, 2008
Настоящее учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов 1-2 курсов факультета международных отношений, обучающихся по специальностям «Политология» и « Реклама».
Пособие носит комплексный характер, включая в себя систему заданий по взаимосвязанному обучению всем видам речевой деятельности с учетом запрограммированного уровня лексико-грамматических навыков и речевых умений, направленных на овладение лексикой в области рекламы; оригинальные профессионально-ориентированные тексты, взятые из британских и американских СМИ; работу по развитию навыков интенсивного (подробного) и экстенсивного (просмотрового) чтения и последующего их совершенствования.
Лексический материал разработан таким образом, что лексические единицы повторяются в текстах пособия, способствуя не только расширению запаса слов обучаемых, но и его закреплению. Весь текстовый материал активно прорабатывается и должен научить обсуждать проблемы в области рекламы на английском языке и участвовать в дискуссиях на заданные темы: основы рекламы, виды рекламы, средства распространения рекламы, технология создания рекламы и история развития рекламы.
Авторы сочли возможным включить тексты, вызывающие при переводе затруднения, в целях развития и закрепления навыков перевода текстов в сфере профессиональной коммуникации.
При отборе текстов учитывается не только их профессиональная направленность, но и другие параметры: доступность по содержанию, наличие изучаемых лексико-грамматических единиц, а также коммуникативный подход к обучению и творческая работа студентов, что составляет основную методологическую базу учебно-методического пособия.
В конце учебно-методического пособия представлен глоссарий, содержащий активную лексику по пройденным темам пособия, а также контрольные задания для проверки усвоения пройденного материала.
Последовательность и полнота выполнения заданий может быть такой как она предложена в пособии, а может быть изменена по усмотрению преподавателя в соответствии с его методическими установками или конкретными условиями обучения в той или иной студенческой группе.
Данное пособие рассчитано на широкий круг людей, изучающих английский язык: студентов языковых и неязыковых вузов, старших классов спецшкол.
1. Unit I “The Nature of Advertising ”………...………………………….5
2. Unit II………………………….……………………………………….12
a. Reading 1 “The Contents of Advertisement”....................................12
b. Reading 2 “The Message of Advertisement”………………………17
c. Reading 3 “The Structure of Advertisement”………………………22
d. Informative Reading “Cherry 7-Up Targeted at Youth Market”…...29
3. Test Yourself……………………………………………………………31
“The Nature of Advertising”
1. Note the pronunciation of the following words:
2. Watch the pronunciation and spelling of these words:
e. to distinguish
Study the following definitions of the word “advertising”, find similarities and differences, work out your own definition based on the given ones.
The activity or business of telling people publicly about a product or service in order to persuade them to buy it on TV, in newspapers, etc. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).
The promotion of goods or services for sale through impersonal media, such as radio or television (Collins English Dictionary).
The business of encouraging people to buy goods by means of advertisements (Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture)
Advertising is a paid form of nonpersonal communication that is given in mass media such аs television, radio, newspapers, magazines, direct mail, mass transit vehicles, and outdoor displays.
Advertising gives the information to the consumer about the seller or his goods, the prices for these goods, information about the place of sale.
Also advertising often informs people about improvements of the goods, changes in quality, etc. Advertising helps the buyer to make the correct decision on purchase.
Division o advertising into three kinds is standard: informative, competitive and reminding.
1. Informative or initial. This advertising acquaints the possible buyer with the new goods in the market, a place of its sale.
2. Competitive, convincing or agitating. The advertiser with the help of various ways and means (skilful drawing up of the text, selection of expressive words, etc) influences mentality of the person with the purpose to call, generate or wake up in him requirement for the given goods or service. He distinguishes the promoted goods from all similar goods and convinces the buyer to get these goods.
3. Safe or reminding. Advertising reminds of earlier promoted goods, supports adherence to the brand, i.e. gives the repeated information of the goods because the consumer can quite “forget” about the existence of the goods and begin to search for the information necessary for him.
Each kind of advertising carries out both functions of advertising, but everyone has the different purposes. So informative and safe advertising carries out mainly the first function as it is aimed first of all at delivering information to the public. Agitating advertising is created for propaganda of the goods, therefore it carries out mainly the second function, but also gives the information.
Skim through the text and decide whether these statements are true or false:
a. The main function of advertising is to inform the consumer about the details of the products as well as their improvements.
b. Informative advertising helps the consumer buy the product with the help of various means and ways.
c. The first function of reminding advertising is to introduce the product to the public through different kinds of mass media such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, etc.
1.Match the words and definitions from the columns; use them in the examples of your own:
1. improvements a. happening at the
2. consumer b. smn who sells smth;
3. purchase c. a kind of situation
in which people or
4. competitive organizations try
very hard to be
5. to distinguish more successful
6. to acquaint
7. seller d. to be able to recognize
and understand the
8. to carry out difference between two
similar things or people;
9. initial e. smn who buys and uses
products and services;
10. to convince
11. purpose f. the thing that an event
process or activity is
supposed to do
g. to do smth that needs to be
organized and planned;
h. to give smn information
i. to persuade smn to do smth;
j. the act of buying smth;
k. a change or addition that
makes smth better;
2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following Russian words and word- combinations; restore their context
b. быть направленным на выполнение чего-либо
c. рекламная деятельность
e. хорошо составленный текст
g. почтовая реклама
h. поддерживать приверженность к чему-либо
i. порождать необходимость в чем-либо
j. выбор экспрессивных слов
3. Find the odd-one out
a. consumer – user – seller - buyer
b. change – improvement - betterment
c. initial - primary - final - first
d. agitating – persuading – discouraging - convincing
e. to distinguish - to combine - to discern - to discriminate between
f. to fulfill - to implement - to carry out - to stand idle
g. contending - rival - competitive – noncompeting
4. Fill in the gaps with the words from the exercises above
a. The main function of _______ is to inform the _______ about the _______ or his goods, and the details of products.
b. With the help of _______ the _______ makes the correct decision on _______ .
c. The main aim of ______ or _______ _______ is to _______ the possible _______ with the new goods in the market, a place of its sale.
d. The ultimate objective of _______, convincing or _______ advertising is to influence mentality of the person by means of _______ _______ ___ ___ ___ _______, _______ ___ _______ _______ in order to _______ in him ______ for the given goods or service.
e. The buyer _______ the promoted goods from all similar goods and _______ the _______ to get these goods.
5. Design your own exercises to make your group mates practice the words and phrases from this text.
1.Read the text once again and decide which of the sentences are correct and which are wrong. Correct those that are wrong
a. Advertising is a free form of personal communication.
b. Advertising is given in such kinds of mass media as direct mail, the Internet, outdoor displays and etc.
c. The only purpose of advertising is to inform the buyer about the place of sale.
d. Generally advertising is divided into four types: initial, convincing, reminding, and agitating.
e. Informative advertising helps the buyer learn about the new goods.
f. Competitive advertising influences mind of the person by different means to make him distinguish the promoted goods from all similar goods.
g. Reminding advertising convinces the possible buyer to get the promoted goods.
h. Each advertising carries out either the first or the second function.
i. The purposes of each kind of advertising are the same.
j. The first function is aimed at agitating the consumer to buy the promoted goods.
2. Answer the following questions on the text
a. What types of mass media are used for advertising a product?
b. What functions does advertising carry out?
c. What kind of information does advertising deliver to the public?
d. Does advertising help the buyer? How?
e. What kinds of advertising are distinguished?
f. What is meant by informative advertising?
g. Does agitating advertising acquaint the buyer with the product or convince him to buy the product by different means?
h. What does safe advertising support and remind of? What methods are used here?
i. What functions does each kind of advertising fulfill?
j. Initial and safe advertising informs consumer about the improvements of the promoted goods, doesn’t it?
k. What is agitating advertising created for?
l. What function does it mainly implement?
3.Make up the summary of the text using the following words and word-combinations
skilful drawing up of text
selection of expressive words
to generate requirement for smth
to support adherence to smth
to carry out
to be aimed at doing smth
Discuss the following questions
a. What kinds of products are often advertised?
b. What is the most successful latest advertisement?
c. What are the functions and purposes of this advertisement?
d. What kind/kinds of advertising are used to make this advertisement so successful?
e. What types of mass media are used?
f. What means and ways of advertising are used to convince the consumer to get these products?
Prepare a written analysis of the recent advertisement.
1. Translate the following text from English into Russian
History of Advertising (beginning
The word “advertising” derived from the Latin word reclamo – “to shout loudly”. Originally this word meant achieving the desire by “shouting” to attract attention, inform about the news, provide the information about sales of some goods.
The predecessor of modern trademarks was a brand of the handicraftsman, for example, on pottery, metal products, and etc.
The first printed advertisement appeared in England in the second half oа the XII-the century, and in 1622 the advertising received powerful “stimulus” after the first newspaper in English “Weekly News” had been published.
The advertising has reached the greatest growth since the XVIII-th century in the USA. This was promoted by some factors. First, American was leading during mechanization, as there was surplus oа the goods and necessity of their advertising. Secondly, the construction of a network of perfect roads has created an opportunity to deliver goods to village areas. Thirdly, the high level of literacy of the population promoted the growth of circulation of newspapers and magazines. Further the invention of radio and TV has become the new effective means of distribution of advertising.
2. Read the following text, translate the Russian words and word-combinations into English, consult the dictionary if necessary
The Epoch of Advertising Growth
of formation of advertising is considered the period from 1840 to 1915. For this period the advertising has turned from the isolated phenomenon into modern institute literally with all basic forms, functions and means of influence inherent to it:
a. The was a national advertising (on behalf of the производителей
have turned from the оптовых
of a place under advertising into the деловых
with a compete service, have found креативные
as the form of возмещения
for services of agency has settled.
of the information started to consider as the basic source.
The criticism of advertising has raised a voice and there was a система
f. Рекламные организации
have received their развитие.
g. The serious discussions of the theory and tactical methods in advertising have begun.
Sum up the main ideas of the two texts and speak on the history and development of advertising.
” The Contents of advertisement”
Watch the pronunciation of the following words and phrases. If necessary consult a dictionary.
1. Study the examples of different kinds of advertisement (from TV, magazines, newspapers, billboards, etc.). What do they have in common (the structure, contents, the impact they produce on consumers)? In what way are they different?
2. What are the basic requirements for an ad? Discuss the question in groups, then share your ideas with the class.
Read the text and find the basic requirements an advertisement should meet. Compare the ideas from the text with your own ones. Are they the same?
Once a company has determined the basic objectives of an advertising campaign and established an advertising budget, it should decide on the message, the mass media and the receiver. All these factors are interconnected. It can happen so that the receiver (or the so-called “target audience”) will determine the message and the media.
There are a number of regulations that control the content of an advertisement and firms are required to follow the British Code of Advertising Practice. Some essential ideas of the code are:
· all advertisements should be legal, decent, honest and truthful;
· they should be prepared with a sense of responsibility to the consumer
· all advertisements should conform to the principles of fair competition as generally accepted in business
· no ad should bring advertising into disrepute or reduce confidence in advertising as a service to industry and to the public.
In any case, advertisements should bright and eye-catching to attract the attention of the consumer. At the same time it should be understandable to the reader. To achieve this a copywriter and all other people involved in the process of advertisement-making use all their creativity and imagination. Creative approaches can be different. For example, while advertising the goods of mass demand, as a rule, they use emotional motives, for the products of industrial purpose – rational. In any case, advertising is effective when it meets several requirements.
· Market characteristics of goods are precisely formulated. Advertising should contain specific information of its use and differences from the goods of competitors.
· Advertisements promise the consumer benefits at purchasing the goods. The advantages of the goods should be given, positive features singled out in the headings of ads, illustrations and even the style of the text.
· The advertisement contains a successful advertising idea – original, attractive and at the same time easy to understand and recognize.
· It emphasizes a high quality of the offered goods and at the same time it itself associates with the high quality.
· It is original and not boring.
· The advertisement has an exact target orientation, reflecting different interests, desires and informing the consumers about the product.
· Advertising emphasizes new unique features and properties of the goods. It predetermines its success in the market.
· Advertising gains the attention of the audience that is reached by successful art, text decisions and placement of the advertisement in mass media.
All these features are the key-factors that influence the success of an advertising campaign.
1. Complete the following sentences with the ideas from the text
1. After determining the basic objectives of an advertising campaign and establishing the advertising budget, a company should ………. .
2. The target audience ………. .
3. According to the British Code of Advertising Practice, all advertisements should be ………. .
4. It’s generally accepted that no advertisement should ……… .
5. Any advertisement should emphasise ……….. .
6. ……………………. Predetermine the success of goods in the market.
7. The attention of the audience to the products is reached by ………… .
2. Read the text once again and answer the following questions
1. What should a company do before deciding on the message of an advertisement?
2. Who are the message of an advertisement and the media planned by?
3. What is the British Code of Advertising Practice?
4. What features should an advertisement possess according to the British Code of Advertising Practice?
5. What principles should advertisements conform to?
6. What should a copywriter do to make an advertisement understandable and eye-catching?
7. What kind of motivation is used to advertise the goods of mass demand?
8. What are the basic motives in advertising the products of industrial purpose?
9. Why should the market characteristics of goods be precisely formulated?
10. Where are the basic characteristics of goods and their positive features singled out in advertisements?
11. What features must a successful advertising idea possess?
12. Nothing should be said about the quality of offered goods, shouldn’t it?
13. In what way can advertisements get an exact target orientation?
14. What are the basic means of gaining the attention of the audience by an advertisement?
1. Translate the following words from Russian into English and use them in the sentences of your own
Определять основные цели рекламной кампании; установить основной бюджет; определить основное содержание рекламного сообщения; СМИ; получатель; быть взаимосвязанным; целевая аудитория; следовать чему-либо; Британский свод правил, регулирующих рекламную деятельность; важный; основной; законный; правдивый; соответствовать принципам честной конкуренции; уменьшать доверие; иметь сомнительную репутацию; привлекающий внимание; потребитель; легкий для понимания; копирайтер; использовать творческие способности и воображение; товары народного потребления; продукты промышленного производства; соответствовать требованиям; рыночные характеристики; быть четко сформулированным; конкуренты; выгода; покупка товаров; заголовок рекламы; иллюстрации; содержать удачную рекламную идею; высокое качество предлагаемой продукции; ассоциироваться с высоким качеством; отражать различные интересы; предопределять; привлекать внимание аудитории; размещение рекламы в СМИ; ключевые факторы.
2. Match the following words with their definitions
1) basic objectives a) buy, consume
2) advertising campaign b) means of getting information and communicating
3) message c) the rivalry among buyers and sellers in the purchase
and sale of resources and products
4) target audience d) bright, getting the attention of the audience quickly
5) consumer e) profits a company gets
6) legal f) most important aims, goals
7) truthful g) a planned set of actions aimed at attracting
consumers’ attention to the benefits of a product or
8) competition h) someone who uses a product or service
9) eye-catching i) lawful
10) benefits j) a group of people who a particular product
11) to purchase k) upright, honest, not lying
12) mass media l) basic things that influence something
13) key factors m) the main idea of a product that expresses its main
3. Fill in the blanks with suitable words and expressions from the previous exercises
1. ………… is the major means that stimulates the trade and allows the ………… to choose among a wide range of different products and ………… .
2. The …………. objective of an …………… …………… is to promote the product and to encourage as many …………… as possible to …………. them.
3. The media-planner should search for the most cost-effective …………. .
4. In developing an ……….. ………… marketing managers always start by determining the ………… ………… of the campaign, its ………… audience and consumer motives.
5. The ………… of the message depends on the type of product.
6. The advertiser should choose the most ……………. media.
7. All advertisements should …………. to the principles of … …….generally accepted in business
4. Say the following sentences in your own words paying attention to the italicized parts of the sentences
1. The type of product and the place of its sale determine the main ideas and opinions
of the message.
2. The British Code of Advertising Practice has created rules and orders
to control the content of advertisement.
3. According to the basic document of advertising
all ads should be lawful
4. Besides advertisements should correspond with the
principles of fair competition.
Give the plot of the text in a summary of 15-20 sentences.
1. In groups of 3-4 discuss the major requirements an ad should meet. Which of them do consider the most important ones or achieving the best results? Which of them should be neglected?
2. Conduct a survey. Choose 8-10 advertisements from different kinds of mass media. Analyse them and say to what extent they meet the requirements mentioned in the text. Share the results of your investigation with the class.
3. Try to find an example of the advertisement you consider effective and productive. Explain your choice.
Part 2.”The Message of Advertisement”
Watch the pronunciation of the words and phrases from the text
1. Study the following definitions to the word message.
Say what they have in common
· An important or main idea.
(Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture)
· The idea or point that people are trying to communicate
(Collins Dictionary for
2. What is understood by the message of advertisement
3. In your opinion, what does the impact an advertisement produces on the audience depend on?
Read the text and find what factors the content and forms of an advertising message depend on.
In principle, the product’s message should be decided as a part of developing the product concept. The message expresses the major benefits that the brand offers. Yet even within one concept there can exist a number of possible messages. Over time, a marketer might alter the message without changing the product especially if consumers are seeking new or different “benefits” from the product.
In designing the message an advertiser will need to consider the following questions.
· What is the content of the message? This will depend on the type of the product and the market in which it is to be sold.
· Who is the receiver? The message may be directed at a particular group of the population, in which case it may have to be delivered in a particular way using a certain media.
· Who sends the message? Very often large firms use celebrities that they think are appropriate for the product.
· What is the timing and the number of messages? An advertiser has the choice between two approaches to an advertising campaign. It can be extensive, where the object is to reach as wide an audience as possible using different media. On the other hand, it can be intensive, where the object is to reach a particular group repeatedly (e.g. products such as lager, coffee, washing powder are advertised intensively on TV).
Thus, the basic content and form of an advertising message depend on several factors. The product’s features, uses and benefits affect the message’s content. Characteristics of the people in the advertising target – their sex, age, education, race, income and occupation influence both the content and the form. The choice of media also affects the content and form of the message. Effective outdoor displays and short broadcast spot announcements require concise and simple messages. Magazine and newspaper advertisements can include much detail and long explanations.
The message’s impact on the audience, however, depends not only on what is said but also on how it is said. Some ads concentrate on rational positioning and others on emotional positioning. American advertisements, for example, present some distinguishing features or benefits designed to appeal to the rational mind: “Gets clothes cleaner”, “Brings relief faster” etc. Japanese advertisements are more indirect and appeal to the emotional mind. An example was Nissan’s Infiniti car advertisement which showed not only the car but beautiful scenes from nature aimed at producing an emotional association and response.
1. Say whether the statements are true or false
1. One particular product can have only one message.
2. The content of the message depends on the type of product and the market.
3. The message doesn’t depend on who it is devoted to.
4. There exist two approaches to an advertising campaign.
5. The content and forms of an advertising message don’t depend on the advertising target.
6. Different kinds of advertisements have the same messages.
2. Answer the following questions
1. What is understood by the message?
2. In what case can a marketer alter the message?
3. What factors should be taken into consideration when designing the message?
4. What does the content of the message depend on?
5. What does the choice of media depend on?
6. What are the two main approaches to an advertising campaign?
7. What is the main difference between the extensive and intensive approaches to an advertising campaign?
8. What are the major factors that influence the basic content and form of an advertising campaign?
9. What are the peculiarities of magazine and newspaper advertisements?
10. What does the impact of the message depend on?
1. Find Russian equivalents to the following words and expressions from the text
Message; to design a message; advertiser; the content of the message; market; receiver; to be directed at; deliver; media; develop the product’s concept; brand; marketer; impact; rational positioning; appeal to smb; produce emotional association and response.
2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the lexical units from the previous exercise
1. Содержание рекламного сообщения зависит от нескольких факторов.
2. После того как была разработана основная идея рекламного сообщения, необходимо выбрать наиболее рентабельные средства передачи данного сообщения.
3. Воздействие рекламного сообщения на целевую аудиторию зависит не только от его содержания, но и от структуры.
4. Эффективная наружная реклама характеризуется простыми, короткими рекламными сообщениями.
5. Медиапланирование является важнейшим этапом в проведении рекламной кампании.
3.Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases:
appeal to smb
1.Choose the most successful advertisement and discuss what made it so successful.
· A 100% splendid pure tea with even higher content of tea now!
· TV shop “Fantastic anti-cellulite leggings. For a mere hundred dollars all the town will know you have a cellulite!”
· An unprecedented action of Coca-Cola in Russia: under each seventh lid you’ll find Vodka!
a) What is the possible target audience of each advertisement?
b) What content does each advertisement have? How does it depend on the type of the product and place of its sale?
c) Are these advertisements legal, decent and truthful?
d) What types of media could be used to deliver the message of the advertisements to the public?
e) What celebrities would you choose to advertise the products?
f) What approach should be chosen to run the advertising campaign of each product?
2. Give your own examples of the most successful advertisements. Analyse them from the point of view of its content, target audience, approach to an advertising campaign and types of media.
1. Study different styles of presenting messages and think which of them could be more preferable. Give arguments for your answer.
· Slice of life.
This shows one or several people using the product in a normal setting. A family seated at the dinner table might express satisfaction with a new biscuit brand.
This emphasizes how a product fits in with a lifestyle. A scotch whisky ad shows a handsome middle-aged man holding a glass of Scotch Whisky in one hand and steering his yacht with the other.
This creates a fantasy around the product or its use. One of Revlon’s cosmetics ads features a barefoot woman wearing a chiffon dress. She comes out of an old French barn, crosses a meadow, and confronts a handsome young man on a white steed, who carries her away.
· Mood and Image.
This creates an evocative mood / image around the product, such as beauty, love or serenity.
This uses background music or shows one or more people or cartoon characters singing a song involving the product. Many Cola ads have used this format.
· Personality Symbol.
This creates a character that personifies the product. The character might be animated or real. (e.g. Mr. Muscle)
· Technical Expertise.
This shows the company/s expertise and experience in making the product.
· Scientific Evidence.
This presents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is preferred or outperforms other brands.
· Testimonial Evidence.
This features a credible, likable source praising the product. It could be a celebrity or ordinary people saying how much they like the product.
Illustrate the above given techniques with the examples of your own. How effective are the advertisements?
2. Read what famous people said about the essence of advertising. Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinions stated below. Support your viewpoint with reasons and examples from your reading, observations or your own experience.
· Advertising is the greatest art form of the twentieth century.
Marshall Mcluhan (1911-1980)
Canadian communication theorist
- You can tell the ideals of a nation by its advertisements.
Norman Douglas (1868-1952)
- Promise, large promise is the soul of an advertisement.
Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)
· Early to bed and early to rise, work like hell, and advertise.
Laurence J. Peter
Choose one of the above mentioned ideas and comment on it in about 180-200 words.
Part 3. “The Structure of Advertisement”
Watch the pronunciation of the following words and phrases from the text:
Study the classical organization of an advertisement given in the Supplement on p. 36. What parts does it consist of? What are their functions? Share your ideas with the class.
Read the text and find answers to the following questions.
1. Why is the headline crucial for an advertisement?
2. What parts does the body copy consist of?
The basic components of an advertisement include: the headline, the illustration (picture caption), the body copy, the signature and the subheadline.
A copy is the verbal portion of an advertisement. It includes headlines, subheadlines(advertising slogan), body copy and the signature. When preparing an advertising copy, marketers bear in their mind the rule called AIDA: attention, interest, desire and action.
The headline is crucial because often it is the only part of the copy that people read. It should attract readers’ attention and create enough interest to make them want to read the body copy. The subheadline, if there is one, links the headline to the body copy. It sometimes helps explain the headline.
Advertising slogans are short, often memorable phrases used in advertising campaigns. They are claimed to be the most effective means of drawing attention to one or more aspects of the product.
An effective slogan usually:
· states the main benefits of the product or brand;
· makes a simple, direct concise statement;
· is often witty;
· gives a credible impression of the brand, product;
· makes the consumer feel good;
· is hard to forget – it adheres to one’s memory
Body copy for most advertisements consists of an introductory statement or paragraph, several explanatory paragraphs, and a closing paragraph. There exists a set of guidelines to develop body copy:
· identify a specific desire or problem of consumers;
· suggest the good or service as the best way to satisfy that desire or solve that problem;
· state the advantages and benefits of the product;
· indicate why the advertised product is the best for the buyer’s particular situation;
· substantiate the claims and advantages;
· ask the buyer for action.
The signature identifies the sponsor of the advertisement. It contains the firm’s trademark, name and address. This signature should be attractive, legible, distinctive and easy to identify.
However different types of advertisement have their own peculiarities. Radio listeners are often mentally not fully “tuned up”, so radio copy should be informal and conversational to attract listeners’ attention. It should consist of short, familiar terms. The rate of speech should be not more than two and one-half words per second.
In television copy, the audio material must not overpower the visual material.
The choice of headlines, copy, and so on, can make a difference in the ad’s impact.
Lalita Manrai reported a study in which she crated two ads for the same car. The first ad carried the headline “A New Car”, the second, the headline “Is this Car for You?” In the second headline, the consumer is labeled as the type of a person who is interested in that type of product. The 2 ads also differed in that the first ad described the car’s features and the second described the car’s benefits. In the test, the second ad outperformed the first ad in the impression of the product, readers’ interest in buying the product and the possibility of recommending it to a friend.
Artwork consists of the illustration and layout of the ads. Although illustrations are often photographs, they also can be drawings, graphs, charts and labels.
The layout of an ad is the physical arrangement of the illustration (picture caption), headline, subheadline, advertising slogan, body copy and signature. These format elements can be positioned in any way. However, a minor rearrangement of elements can improve the perception ability of the ad. Larger-size ads get more attention. Four-colour illustrations instead of black and white increase ad effectiveness.
A number of researchers into print ads report that the picture, headline, and copy are important in the following order. The reader first notices the picture, and it must be strong enough to draw attention. Then the headline must be effective in encouraging the person to read the copy. The copy itself must be well composed.
Answer the following questions
1. What are the basic components of an ad?
2. What is a copy?
3. What components does it consist of?
4. What is understood by AIDA?
5. Why is the headline crucial for an advertisement?
6. What are the main aims of the headline?
7. Is subheadline an integral part of an ad?
8. What should a body copy consist of?
9. What are the main rules of developing a body copy?
10. What is the function of the signature?
11. What information should the signature include?
12. What characteristic features should the signature possess?
13. Do different types of ads meet the same requirements? Give examples.
14. What influences the impact an ad makes on other people?
15. What is artwork?
16. What is understood by the layout of an ad?
17. Is the arrangement of the format elements of an ad important? Why? Why not?
18. What is the most effective structure of an ad?
2. Complete the table
Component of the ad
3. Make up the summary of the text using the information from the table in the previous exercise.
1. Find English equivalents to the following words and phrases from the text
Заголовок, иллюстрация, основная часть, подпись, подзаголовок, словесная, образец рекламы, привлекать внимание читателей, создавать/ вызывать интерес, вводное утверждение, объясняющий абзац, заключительный абзац, идентифицировать/ определять, удовлетворить/ выполнить желание, положительные стороны товара, указывать, подтверждать, спонсор, товарный знак, легкий для прочтения, разговорный, перевешивать, превосходить, расположение элементов, улучшать способность восприятия рекламы, составляющие элементы, быть расположенным, эффективность, быть хорошо составленным, вдохновлять/ воодушевлять, остроумный.
2. Explain the meaning of the following terms mentioned in the text
adhere to smth
3. Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the exercises above
a. Classical _______ of an advertisement includes the _______, subheadline, _______, _______ and _______.
b. One of the _______ elements in the advertisement is the headline. It should be original and bright enough to ______ readers’ attention and to arouse the interest in the ad.
c. The _______ usually contains the basic information about the product, its characteristic features, advantages and ______.
d. The signature identifies the _______ of the ad. It should be ______, _______ and easy to identify.
e. Though the ______ can be positioned in any way there exist some general rules of arranging the ______ of the advertisement.
f. The copy must be ______ because the arrangement of the format elements influences the _______ of the ad and the ______ it makes on consumers.
4. Give antonyms to the following words from the text.
a. Use negative prefixes
b. Use words with a different root
c. Watch the use of the following prefixes
What meanings do they have? Can you give any other words with the same prefix?
1. Prepare a presentation on the topic “Tips for creating an effective advertisement”.
2. Make up a dialogue.
You are two competitors. The first one is a successful advertiser, the second has just started an advertising business. The latter has doubts about how to create an effective advertisement for a new product, the former does not want to let him succeed in it, he gives the “worst” advice to let his competitor down.
(Use the Word Study exercises in your dialogue)
Discuss the following questions in groups, report the results of the discussion back to the class.
1. Does the effectiveness of an advertisement depend on its layout? Give evidence for your answer.
2. Can you think of any examples of the advertisements you don’t like? What is wrong about them? What makes them ineffective? Can they be improved?
“What is said in advertising is more important than how you say it”
Comment on the words of David Ogilvy, an American businessman and an advertising expert, in about 180-200 words.
Translate the following Russian text into English using words from the text
ЧТО ТАКОЕ ХОРОШИЙ РЕКЛАМНЫЙ ТЕКСТ
Рекламный текст состоит из пяти основных элементов, которые почти всегда используются в рекламе:
подписи и комментарии;
Заголовок (вместе с фотографией или иллюстрацией) привлечет к рекламе читателя, зрителя или слушателя. Заголовок - стержень рекламы и наиболее сильный посыл к покупателю.
Заголовок должен быть мощным по воздействию и ясным по смыслу, чтобы привлечь внимание потенциального покупателя к рекламируемому продукту.
Подзаголовок направлен к клиенту. Подзаголовок - мост между заголовком и основным текстом.
Основной текст содержит информацию об основных свойствах, качествах и преимуществах предлагаемого продукта.
Подписи и комментарии
Фотографии, иллюстрации, подписи и комментарии в рекламе могут стать наиболее результативным инструментом продажи. Подписи не только поясняют, что изображено на фотографии или иллюстрации, но и привлекают внимание покупателя. В подписи можно поместить дополнительную информацию, связанную с продажей .
Комментарии - это, как правило, похожие на подписи фрагменты текста, при помощи линии или стрелки соединенные с элементами фотографии или иллюстрации. Они описывают определенные части какого-либо предмета или изображенной сцены.
Рекламный лозунг - это словесный эквивалент логотипа (графического знака) фирмы. В печатном объявлении он обычно появляется рядом с графическим знаком фирмы или названием предприятия сразу же под ними. В рекламном лозунге отражена и сконцентрирована позиция фирмы, он делает ее привлекательной для клиентов.
Cherry 7-up targeted at Youth Market
Advertisers must aim their message at a specific target market if the message is to be effective. Seven-Up Corporations, the producer of the “uncola”, traditionally targeted its products and advertising to older generations, but a decline in sales made the company change its strategy in 1987. According to the research, nearly half of all soft drinks were consumed by teenagers aged from 13 up to 24. So the first decision of the company was to target its advertising campaign to this age group. Some time later the company introduced a new Cherry Seven-up and its sugar free version, which was a revolution since the company had never deviated from its lemon-lime formulation before.
So, the company launched an advertising campaign for Cherry-Up which featured the tag “Isn’t it cool in pink?” Pink was chosen the dominant colour in those ads. The TV commercials were black and white except for prominent pink articles such as suspenders, earrings, and, of course Cherry 7-Up itself, which was in colour. 7-Up chose pink as the primary colour of the campaign partly because it was a favourite fashion colour of the target market and partly because of its eye-appeal.
The ads were slice-of life-ads, which focused on the lifestyles of the target market. They showed teenagers, having some problems, natural surroundings. To add to this, the campaign also tried to bring to the pink theme certain qualities that adolescents wanted, such as self-assurance, popularity, and independence. The TV spots used light rock music and electronic musical effects, they were run during the target market’s favourite programmes. It also contributed to the success of the new product.
To make the campaign more efficient the company supported it by a “Cool in Pink” merchandise catalogue offering Cherry 7-Up clothes and accessories, including Cherry 7-Up T-shirts and sweatshirts, pink sunglasses, shoelaces and headbands and Cherry 7-Up watches, which 7-Up hoped fashion-conscious teenagers would find “cool”.
All those “tricks” boosted the popularity of the new soft-drink. Several years later the sales of the drink doubled. So, advertising was the tool the company used to reach its target market.
Choose the correct answer
1. If advertisers want the message of an ad to be more effective they must:
a. change the means of delivering the message
b. aim it at the target audience
c. work out some details of the message
2. The decrease in the sales of 7-Up’s soft drinks made the company:
a. introduce another soft drink into the market
b. ask competitors for help
c. change the company’s strategy
3. The new advertising policy of 7-Up:
a. was effective and increased the sales of the new soft drink
b. didn’t lead to any results
c. bankrupted the company
Sum up the measures taken by 7-Up aimed at increasing the number of sales
1.Were the measures taken by 7-Up effective? What else could they do to overcome the deadlock?
2. Find some other examples of the cases when effective media planning increased the profits of the company. What measures were taken? Tell your groupmates about the cases according to the plan:
a. the problem
b. the measures taken to overcome the deadlock
c. the results
1.Read the following text, translate the Russian expressions into English, consult the dictionary if necessary. Fill in the gaps with the words given before the text
In the first place but more than that in general finally therefore because it is a well-known fact and next
_______ that advertising информирует
about the existence and benefits of products and services, and attempts убедить
Large companies could easily set up their own advertising departments, ________ they tend to hire the services of рекламное
_______decides on its рекламный
, the amount of money it plans to spend in developing its advertising and buying media time or space. _______ it provides a brief statement of целей
and _______ it gives an overall рекламную
concerning what message is to be communicated. The choice of how and where to advertise (газетная
posters on hoardings(GB) or billboards(US), point-of-purchase displays in stores, mailings of leaflets, брошюры
, and so on), _______ in what proportions, is called a media plan. Преимущества
of each medium must be weighed up because each medium has its own characteristics and covers different areas of потенциальный
. _______ when a firm has selected the means of delivering the message it must decide on the number of times the advert should be displayed.
The set of покупателей
whose need a company plans to satisfy, and ________ to expose to an advertisement is known as целевой
_______ the advertising of a particular product or service during a particular period of time is called рекламная
Favourable mentions of a company’s products or услуги
in any medium read, viewed or heard by company’s customers or или потенциальные
that are not paid for, are called publicity.
2. Answer the following questions
a. What are the main kinds of advertising?
b. What main functions of advertising are distinguished?
c. What are the main requirements for the message of an advertisement?
d. What is the traditional structure of an advertisement? How should format elements
e. What does the impact an advertisement makes on the target audience depend on?
Role-play “Making an Advertisement”
You are the members of an advertising department. A new product or service is going to be launched into the market by your company. You are to create an effective advertisement of the new product.
1.select the product/ service;
2. determine its functions, advantages and benefits, target market;
3. work out the message of the product;
4. work out the layout of your ad: watch the format elements and their arrangement;
5. prepare the artwork of the advertisement;
6. demonstrate your ad to the groupmates.
Watch the ads of your groupmates and try to evaluate them according to the following criteria:
a. the idea (1-5)
b. the layout (1-5)
c. the artwork (1-5)
d. the message (1-5)
e. the effectiveness of the advertisement (1-5)
Vote for the most effective advertisement and choose the best one.
2. to advertise
13. to acquaint
15. skilful drawing up of the text
16. selection of expressive words
17. to generate requirement for smth
18. to distinguish
19. to convince
20. to support adherence to smth
21. to carry out
23. to be aimed at doing smth
24. direct mail
1. to determine the basic objectives
2. an advertising campaign
3. to establish an advertising budget
4. to decide on the message
5. mass media
7. to be interconnected
8. target audience
9. to meet the requirements
10. The British Code of Advertising Practice
15. to prepared with a sense of responsibility
16. to conform to the principles of fair competition
16. to bring advertising into disrepute
17. to reduce confidence in smth
19. to be understandable
23. goods of mass demand
24. products of industrial purpose
25. market characteristics
27. to be singled out
28. to be easy to understand and recognize
29. to have an exact target orientation
30. to reflect interests and desires
31. to emphasize unique features and properties
32. to predetermine success
33. to gain the attention of the audience
34. key factors
1.to design the message
2. the content of the message
3. to be delivered
4. approach to an advertising campaign
5. extensive/ intensive
6. product’s features
7. to effect smth
8. to influence smth
9. outdoor displays
10. short broadcast spot announcements
11. concise and simple messages
12. rational positioning
13. emotional positioning
14. to appeal to emotional mind
15. to produce an emotional association and response
1. the basic components of an advertisement
4. body copy
8. to attract readers’ attention to smth
9. to create interest
10. introductory statement
11. explanatory paragraph
12. closing paragraph
13. to identify a specific desire or problem
14. to satisfy the desire
15. to substantiate claims and advantages
17. firm’s trademark
21. to consist of short familiar terms
22. to overpower
23. to outperform
25. format elements
26. to be positioned
27. to improve the perception ability of an ad
29. to encourage
30. to be well composed
Юлия Сергеевна Бузуева
Надежда Алексеевна Глазунова
Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Нижегородский государственный университет им. Н.И. Лобачевского»
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